Notes about Berlin Conference 15 November 1884 to 26 February 1885 at which west-European hegemonies contrived their plunder of the whole of Africa and the emasculation of Africans



"The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily." —

[ per H J de Blij and Peter O Muller's —
Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts (1997) page 340).]



In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the countries of having majority west-European populace, to discuss colonising Africa between themselves, without European peoples having the cause to war among themselves..

At the time of the Conference, 80% of Africa remained under indigenous African rule. West-European colonialists destroyed the existing indigenous societies and force-divided Africa into fifty (50) irregular colonies. This new map of the continent was superimposed over the numerous indigenous nations and nomadic societies of Africa. The new colonies broke-up contiguous indigenous societies and forced the merging of disparate peoples.

Fourteen (14) European countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the Conference opened in Berlin on 15 November 1884. The countries represented at the Conference included;

Austria-Hungary (unified until 1918),
Belgium,
Denmark,
France,
Germany,
Great Britain,
Italy,
The Netherlands,
Portugal,
Russia,
Spain,
Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905),
Turkey,
United States of America.

Personal observation:
Inclusion of USA reminds that it is, in effect, a majority-European populace. In 2013, USA population comprises 80% Europeans. Indigenous Americans (Asians), having been decimiated despite their noble stance agin brutal colonising holocaust. Africans in the USA, also bore the enduring emasculating yoke of heinous, Slavery holocaust. Neither holocaust should ever be forgotten — lest they be repeated.]

Of the fourteen European countries at the Conference, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major colonising miscreants. They controlled most of the west-European colonies already set-up in Africa.

The initial aim of the Conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. Despite the neutrality proclaimed, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgium's King Leopold II. Under Leopold  regime over half of the region's population was decimated by murderous attrocities and heinous forced-labour.

At the time of the Conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonised by European countries. At the Berlin Conference, the delegations of the European countries argued over their hegemonic control of the Africa's hinterland. The Conference lasted three months until 26 February 1885 - during which time the European countries haggled over geographical divisions to mark their proposed colonial territories across all of Africa. The dividing lines were drawn with no regard for Africa's already existing indigenous nations and cultural and linguistic boundaries.

Following the Conference, the European countries continued their hegemonic interactions to divide Africa's terroritories between themselves, with disregard of Africans barring the exploitaion of them and plunder of their lands and assets. By 1914, the west-European countries represented at the Conference, had divided Africa into fifty (50) geographical areas that were thus distributed among west-European countries for colonial exploitation. The primary European colonial perpetrators of land-grabbing in Africa, were as follows.


Great Britain
British-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan -(Egypt, and Sudan);

British East Africa -(Kenya, and Uganda);

South Africa (South Africa, Zambia);

Rhodesia - (Botswana, and Zimbabwe);

Nigeria;

Gold Coast (Ghana).

Britain sought control of all lands on the west of Africa, stretching the length of the continent, from South Africa to Egypt; but that quest did not succeed in total.


France
French-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

French West Africa - (being much of West Africa from Mauritania to Chad);

French Equitorial Africa - (Gabon, Republic of Congo).


Belgium
Belgian-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

Belgian Congo - (Democratic Republic of Congo)


Portugal
Portugese-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

Angola.

Mozambique


Italy
Italian-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

Italian Somaliland - (Somalia)

part of Ethiopia


Germany
German-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

German Southwest Africa - (Namibia)

German East Africa - (Tanzania)


Spain
Spanish-Europeans 'grabbed' Africa terrority as follows:
- (Subsequent/independent region national names in brackets)

Rio Muni - (Equatorial Guinea)




Internet sources, include:

'The Latin Library' online article 'The Berlin Conference (1884-5)'

'Wikipedia' online article: 'Congo_Free_State'




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this page:14/02/2013

published:14/02/2013
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